There cerebral cortex has two hemispheres, left and right. Within these hemispheres there are four divisions which can be referred to as lobes which can be seen best in the lateral view of the brain. The four different lobes are frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. They are named after the skull bones that they overly with (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). The cortex is subdivided into five different subtypes for their functions. The five areas are primary sensory, primary motor, unimodal association areas, multimodal association areas, and lastly paralimbic and limbic areas.
The front lobe has two divisions, and they are the prefrontal cortex and the motor cortex. The frontal lobe receives the messages from the cerebellum (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). It generates the signals from the neurons that controls the movement in the body. The layer of the motor cortex is the biggest one in the cerebral cortex and run down the spinal cord and some are very long. If this location were to get damaged people would have issues with being able to move freely and they would have poor dexterity. This area helps with motor association areas which result in planning and sensory movements and initiation.
The parietal lobe is what helps with sensory input. This part of the brain receives the sensory information which includes touch, pain, limb position and temperature which then goes to the thalamus. With that being said, if this part of the brain was damaged then we wouldn’t be able to feel temperature (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). For example, if I were to put my hand on a hot stove and I didn’t have this part working then I wouldn’t feel that it was hot, and I would keep my hand on it and because of that I would get burned.
The occipital lobe is the processing area of the brain. This lobe is where the visual information gets processed. It only deals with vision perception. This area has six big layers and starts to code visual features such as luminance, spatial frequency, and motion (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). If this were to be damaged, we wouldn’t be able to see objects clearly or process things so easily. Also, hallucinations which is seeing things that really aren’t there.
Lastly, the temporal lobe is where the auditory processing area is. This is also where the sensations of sound are produced in humans’ ears. If the temporal lobe was to be damaged, we would have disturbance of auditory sensation. For example, we wouldn’t be able comprehend things as easy as we can if it were working correctly. Also, the inability to comprehend language as well would be difficult if the temporal lobe was damaged (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018).